Koľko stojí jeden mobil našu planétu?

137
Videnia

Ku každému smartfónu ti dáme ďalší ako darček. Uži si dvojnásobnú radosť!
Vymeňte svoj starý mobil za nový už po roku!

Tak sa snažia zaujať zákazníkov reklamné kampane jedného z mobilných operátorov na Slovensku. 

Smartfóny sa stali symbolom prestíže a životného štýlu. Väčina z nás su bez nich už dnes nevie predstaviť život.
Stali sa tiež spotrebným tovarom – skúste spočítať, koľko mobilov ste už za život vymenili. Ako všetko v živote, aj toto má svoju cenu.
My ju platíme cenou za tovar, tú inú – pre nás neviditeľnú – platia ľudia vo vzdialených krajinách sveta. A platí ju aj celá planéta.

Postapokalyptický svet

Desiatky rúr vylievajú v neustálom prúde čiernu páchnucu tekutinu do rozľahlého jazera či skôr čiernej brečky.
Zápach síry dráždi ku kašľu. Postapokalyptický pocit dotvárajú v pozadí stojace komíny gigantickej fabriky – veľkej ako mesto.
Sme v čínskom komplexe pri meste Baotou, v autonómnom regióne vnútorne Mongolsko. V jednom zo svetových centier ťažby
tzv. vzácnych zemín.

Cerium, dysprosium, erbium, ytterbium, yttrium a mnohé iné prvky – o vzácnych zeminách zrejme väčšina z nás nepočula. V škole sme sa o nich neučili, ich obrázky nie sú vyznačené ani v tematickom školskom atlase sveta. Nepíše sa o nich v novinách, nehovorí v médiách. Napriek svojmu názvu ani nie sú až také vzácne, vzácny je skôr výskyt ložísk z ich vysokou koncentráciou. Používajú sa v spotrebičoch, v ktorých sú akoby kváskom v chlebe – nemusí ich byť v ňom veľa, ale bez nich chlieb neupečieme. V Číne sa ťaží asi 95 % svetovej spotreby vzácnych zemín – väčšina práve vo Vnútornom Mongolsku.

 

Nachádzajú sa ale všade. Napríklad cérium má obrovské množstvo komerčných použití – od farbenia skla po použitie v katalyzátoroch áut. Používa sa tiež na leštenie dotykových obrazoviek smartfónov a tabletov. Neodymium sa používa napríklad na výrobu výkonných a ľahkých magnetov, ďalšie prvky sú zas nevyhnutné na výrobu elektrických zubných kefiek.

Ekonomika stúpa – ostatné je nepodstatné

Ťažba, spracovanie a recyklácia vzácnych zemín majú extrémne negatívne dôsledky na životné prostredie. Predovšetkým, ak sa na jeho ochranu nedbá počas celého procesu ťažby a spracovania. Pri spracovaní sa používajú toxické kyseliny, v zeminách sa vyskytujú aj rádioaktívne prvky ako thórium a urán, celý proces ťažby a spracovania je veľmi nebezpečný. Práve preto sa väčšina ťažby koncentruje do Číny, ktorá je ochotná akceptovať tieto riziká a nedbá veľmi na ich dôsledky.

Komplex vo vnútornom Mongolsku, asi 120 km od Baotou, foto: NASA, Wikipedia

Baotou vďaka vzácnym zeminám zažíva ekonomický boom. Kým v roku 1950 tu nežilo ani 100-tisíc obyvateľov, dnes ich je viac ako dva a pol milióna. Tí uprednostňujú pracovné príležitosti a možnosť zarobiť si pred zdravotnými rizikami. Kedysi tak ako okoli Baotou mohli vyzerať priemyselné oblasti v Západnej Európe a neskôr industriálne centrá vtedajšieho Východného bloku. Dnes také nájdete len v miestach, kde ešte nepoznajú moderné envrironmentálne štandardy a systémy regulácie.

Extrémna chudoba v bohatej krajine

Demokratická republika Kongo (DRC) je chaotická aj na regionálne pomery. Pred sto rokmi bola v de facto súkromnom vlastníctve belgického kráľa Leopolda II. Ten úplne vyplienil jej prírodné bohatstvo – prírodný kaučuk a slonovinu. Čo je horšie, jeho ľudia pri tom vyvraždili alebo zmrzačili aj značnú časť, asi desať miliónov, obyvateľov krajiny. Z tejto rany sa dodnes nespamätala (video je v angličtine).


Ani viac ako polstoročie po získaní nezávislosti preto Demokratická republika Kongo nie je demokratická a podľa nitkroých aj od republiky má ďaleko. V krajine sa nachádzajú veľké zásoby vzácnych nerastných surovín. Korupcia a politická nestabilita však spôsobili, že z nich profituje len úzka elita a zahraniční „investori“. Pochádza z nej až 60 percent svetovej produkcie kobaltu.

Kým v Kalifornii, v tzv. Kremíkovom údolí (Silicon Valley) pokračuje boom informačných technológii, do baní v africkom vnútrozemí sa spúšťajú baníci, niektorí mladší ako dvanásť rokov. Nemajú žiadne bezpečnostné vybavenie, moderné nástroje, len čelovú lampu a kladivo s klinom. Za deň tvrdej práce takto zarobia dva až tri doláre. Je to nebezpečná práca, pri ktorej hrozia zosuvy, a počas nej baníci vdychujú nebezpečné plyny ako metán a toxický prach. Zarobia len toľko, koľko vyťažia. V prípade dažďov, kedy sa v zaplavených baniach ťažiť nedá nezarobia vôbec nič. Inú možnosť ale nemajú – je to jedna z mála pracovných príležitostí v oblasti. A ako to súvisí so Sillicon Valley?

Dopyt stúpa, cena však klesá

Po vyťažení čistia kobalt ženy a deti v blízkej rieke a predávajú priekupníkom. Od nich sa preváža k hraniciam so susednou Zambiou, a ďalej prepravuje do prístavu v Tanzánii. Svoju konečnú destináciu má obyčajne v Ázii, kde sa dnes vyrába väčšina lítium-iontových batérii. Až 90 percent „čínskeho“ kobaltu má pôvod v DRC, kde čínske spoločnosti dominujú miestnemu trhu s nerastnými surovinami.

Kobalt je najdrahšia surovina v lítium-iontovej batérii. Preto sa vedci a inžinieri už dlhšie snažia nájsť k tomuto minerálu alternatívu. Ale zatiaľ zostáva jedinou možnosťou, ako zvýšiť výkon batérii. Aj preto zaň musia výrobcovia počítačov, áut a batérii platiť až 20 eur za kilogram. Baníci dostanú len zlomok z tejto sumy. 

V ostatných piatich rokoch sa dopyt po kobalte strojnásobil. Stúpa výroba batérii, predovšetkým do osobných elektrických áut. Firma Tesla dokončuje svoju gigantickú fabriku na lítium-iontové batérie v americkej Nevade a ostatné automobilky takisto nezostávajú čakať so založenými rukami. Okrem toho je kobalt potrebný aj pri výrobe počítačov a mobilných zariadení. Bez neho by boom informačných technológii nemal na čom fungovať. Predpokladá sa, že globálny dopyt po kobalte bude preto aj naďalej stúpať.

Napriek zvyšujúcemu sa dopytu cena kobaltu klesá. Ešte rýchlejšie ako dopyt po ňom totiž stúpa množstvo minerálu vyťažených v primitívnych baniach. Tie dodávajú na svetový trh kobalt za najnižšiu cenu – kvôli nízkym mzdám baníkov a tomu, že pri ťažbe nevznikajú žiadne ďalšie náklady zabezpečujúce moderné štamndardy. Tými sú napríklad eliminácia environmentálnych škôd, kúpa pôdy od jej vlastníkov, kompenzácie pre región alebo štát, či odškodnenie v prípade zranení alebo dokonca úmrtí baníkov.

Každému je jasné, čo sa deje, takmer všetci však pred problémom zatvárajú oči. Keďže ťažba kobaltu sa nepovažuje za priamy zdroj podpory vojenského konfliktu v oblasti, neplatí na jeho vývoz v USA embargo, ako je to v prípade iných nerastných surovín zo Demokratickej republiky Kongo. Skutočným dôvodom ale môže byť, že globálny priemysel je na kobalte z Konga závislý a akýkoľvek výkyv v dodávateľskom reťazci by ho mohol vážne poškodiť.

Agbogbloshie – miesto, kde by ste sa nechceli narodiť

Ak západní fotografi hľadajú miesto, ktoré predstavuje to najhoršie, čo spôsobuje rastúca spotreba elektroniky, vedia kam majú cestovať. Cestujú do Agbogbloshie ležiacom na predmestí Accry, hlavného mesta Ghany. Stalo sa symbolom nelegálneho vývozu starej elektroniky z najbohatších do jednej z najchudobnejších krajín. Pravda však nie je taká jednoduchá – väčšina zastaranej elektroniky sem dnes pochádza priamo z Ghany a krajín Západnej Afriky.

Hoci bazilejská konvencia zakazuje vývoz nebezpečného odpadu z bohatých do ekonomicky menej rozvinutých krajín, nezakazuje vývoz tovaru, ktorý môže byť opätovne použitý alebo opraviteľný. Časť spotrebičov dovezených do Ghany v skutočnosti ale nie je opätovne použiteľná a aj tie, ktoré sú, skôr alebo neskôr skončia na miestach ako je Agbogbloshie.

Agbogbloshie vyrástlo na močiaroch a nížinách Guinejského zálivu. Je tiež symbolom rýchlej urbanizácie afrických veľkomiest a všetkého negatívneho, čo tento proces prináša. Dnes toto miesto charakterizujú kúdole čierneho dymu a rozbahnené cesty. Tie rozdeľujú dielne, kde sa spracuje elektronický odpad – často tým najjednoduchším spôsobom – spaľovaním nepotrebných častí. Aj miestni ľudia žijúci v meste ho nazývajú Sodoma a Gomora.

Nie je to pre nás dobré

Miesto pôsobí na prvý pohľad chaoticky, ale všetko je prekvapujúco zorganizované. Časť chlapcov a mladých mužov zbiera staré pevné disky počítačov, ďalšia spaľuje káble, aby sa tak dostali k medi a iným kovom, iní zas kliešťami vyberajú medené a hliníkové časti starej elektroniky. Ženy a dievčatá sa starajú o varenie jedla, prinášajú občerstvenie a vodu. Špecifická práca sa našla aj pre menšie deti – magnetom zavesenom na špagáte hľadajú zabudnuté kúsky kovu. Žijú tu tisícky ľudí, pre ktorých sa stal odpad prácou a životom.

Jedným zo zberačov je aj Abdoullaye: „Zarobím medzi 60 centov a jeden a pol eura denne. Každý mesiac posielam 15 eur domov, rodine, ktorá žije na severe krajiny Rád by som sa vrátil späť, ale moja rodina potrebuje peniaze, takže zostávam. Máme tu mnoho problémov – niekedy musím ísť do nemocnice. Nie je to pre nás dobré.“

Skutočná cena 

Technologické firmy, telekomunikačné firmy a predajcovia telefónov medzičasom pokračujú vo svojom marketingu. Načo čakať? Kúp si už dnes nový telefón – ešte jeden, ešte novší, ešte výkonnejší! Tieto telefóny však vznikajú aj v jazerách s rádioaktívnou brečkou v okolí Baotou, v primitívnych baniach džunglí Demokratickej republiky Kongo. Na konci svojho životného cyklu môžu skončiť v miestach ako je Agbogbloshie.

Skutočnú cenu mobilu je potrebné zaplatiť ešte pred jeho vznikom a splácať sa bude dlho po tom, ako nás omrzí alebo prestane fungovať.  

autor: Lukáš Zajac
uverejnené s láskavým zvolením: globalne vzdelavanie.sk

Spracované podľa: 

www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/business/batteries/congo-cobalt-mining-for-lithium-ion-battery/
www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/14/ghana-dump-electronic-waste-not-good-place-live
www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/burning-truth-behind-e-waste-dump-africa-180957597/
www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21688372-they-are-obscure-yet-essential-why-rare-metals-make-world-go-round-unobtainiums
www.bbc.com/future/story/20150402-the-worst-place-on-earth

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